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Outlander,
his heroes and their religions

Throughout our readings, we meet our heroes in their environment, their culture, their faith.
It is this last point that we will try to address without proselytizing, without bias.
Just facts to understand. We will content ourselves with analyzing these facts for the first 3 volumes and we will stay mainly in Europe.
We will devote another document to America later.

For some, it will be a little reminder, for others a discovery ... for all, an openness and maybe a sharing.
Let us never forget that what guides the world is the need for power.

All pretexts are good, including that of religion, resulting in suffering, famines, deportations, imprisonments, pyres, wars ...
It is in this suffering from Europe, with a multitude of different thoughts, religions and beliefs that a new nation will be born in North America.

But let’s start by remembering the beginnings of these events which will shake up the world, including Catholic Scotland.

 

The Renaissance, born in the 15th century in Italy and then in the 16th throughout the West, will see the emancipation of minds which led to a break with the habits of authority. A critical spirit developed in the arts, literature, science, philosophy and eventually touched the Catholic Church.

 

Calvin (1509-1564) in Switzerland and Luther (1483-1546) in Germany will be the two great thinkers of this religious movement.

 

The Reformation will be born in tears and pain.

 

This religious protest will be supported by some powerful Westerners while others will be alongside the Catholic Church. The old antagonisms will awaken between these nations. The wars of religion begin. All of Europe will be affected.

However, the Catholics try to resist and so begins their persecution.


Marie Tudor (1516-1558), daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, after the very short reign of her younger brother, becomes the first queen of England and Ireland. She remained Catholic; his reign will be marked by his brutal attempts to restore Catholicism. This repression earned her the nickname Bloody Mary (Mary the Bloody).

In England, the return to Catholicism was canceled after the death of Mary Tudor in 1558 by her younger half-sister Elisabeth, daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. Then began a very long prestigious reign that would impose England as a great power on land and sea.

Indeed, after the Anglicans returned from exile in 1559, John Knox introduced the Reformation in Scotland.

In addition, his violent sermons against the Catholic Marie Stuart who is "queen and woman", will weaken her authority.

His mother, French princess, Marie de Guise, ensures the regency.

As part of the long friendship between France and Scotland, at the age of 5, she left Scotland, promised to François Valois, one of the sons of Henry II and Catherine de Medici.
Here she is Queen of France and Scotland when her husband became King of France, François II in 1559.

 

It was the death of Regent Marie de Guise that provided the Scottish Parliament with the opportunity to adopt the Reformation on August 17, 1560. Laws abolish Catholicism and promulgate its replacement by Protestantism, which becomes the state religion in 1561. The Presbyterian Church of Scotland will be adopted.

Note that in the Highlands, the Catholics will resist. Their church and their faith will stay alive. Many priests will find refuge there. Highlanders will cling to the old Catholic Church steeped in popular beliefs and even superstitions. The isolation of the region will render the efforts of the Anglican missionaries in vain. Their resistance survived until the total collapse in Culloden in 1746.

 

Leaving France for good on August 14, 1561, Marie Stuart returned to Scotland on the death of her husband. But she does not manage to establish her authority and the French, grappling with their wars of religion, cannot support her. Through his sermons, John Knox continues his work of undermining the Queen and contributes to her dismissal. She was dethroned in 1567.

Marie suspected of plotting against Elisabeth her cousin, will be his prisoner and will finally be executed in 1587.

 

As for Elisabeth, she died in 1603 and the throne went to Marie Stuart's only son, whom she had from a second marriage. Jacques was only one year old when his mother died. Supported by a regency and Presbyterian preceptors who will educate him in this religion.
From 1582, he ruled Scotland alone under the title of James VI (1566-1625).

Sensing that he was the heir, Jacques Stuart supported Elisabeth in 1588, as she faced the Spanish navy, the Invincible Armada of Catholic King Philip II; Jacques assures Elisabeth of his support as

 

"Your natural son and compatriot of your country".

However, three facts should be highlighted:

 

During his visit to Denmark, a country used to witch hunts, Jacques became interested in witchcraft. On his return to Scotland, disturbed by these "dangers", he wrote a treatise on demonology to include this new knowledge in theology.

In Daemonology, written and published in 1597, he approves and supports the witch hunt. He begins his book with:


“The disturbing abundance, in our country in our time, of these detestable slaves of the devil, the witches and the enchanters, prompts me (dear reader) to write you this note, this treatise of my hand (...) for eliminate the doubt (...) that such attacks by Satan are assuredly practiced, and that his instruments deserve the most severe punishment ”

Magical beliefs will persist despite everything, especially in the Highlands and the islands.

 

- Scottish Freemasonry under Jacques VI Stuart

It is interesting to note that speculative Freemasonry appeared in 17th century Scotland, undoubtedly at the exit of this great movement which was the Renaissance and its great achievements in cultural life.


Corporate Freemasonry had existed for much longer. Some trace it back to the builders of pyramids. The secrets of these builders would thus have been handed over from generation to generation to arrive in the West at the time of the builders of cathedrals. The guilds of the trades were born. The lodge was the place where master mason, companions and apprentices gathered.

It would be William Schaw (1550-1602) who would be the founder of speculative masonry in Scotland.
At first, he wanted to restore the image of the craftsmen-masons.
Schaw was Master of Works of James VI, and sought, as representative of the crown, to place all the Masons of Scotland under his control.
He became General Supervisor of Masons and Architect to the King

Above all, he was convinced that this profession should be elevated to the level of an art and considered mathematics to be essential for understanding the world.


All the participants were believers and the idea of ​​a God was very present.

 

The founder was Catholic but was protected by the king. The craftsmen for the most part were Presbyterians. Before the Reformation, all these men were Catholics and belonged to corporate guilds having an altar in the churches, a patron saint, a feast day, processions… All these activities were suppressed by the Reformation.

 

Schaw was convinced that there was a need to reintroduce other rituals accepted by all.
Thus was born the ritual of Schaw in 1598/1599.

And he succeeded in uniting these artisans around meetings, rituals, new ceremonies ... different from what the Catholic guilds did before the Reformation.


Guilds were religious fraternities.
The lodges became lay fraternities, but where the idea of ​​God was not excluded.
Gradually, these corporate lodges were joined by scholars, mathematicians, philosophers to become speculative lodges under the protection of the Stuarts.

 

The great era of Freemasonry was undoubtedly still to come, in the 18th century, when it would identify with the Spirit of the Enlightenment. But this modern idea was born and was going to spread in England quickly where it was supported by nobles, men of power, senior military officers And the deist idea is maintained to this day in the so-called regular lodges .
There is no doubt that the Stuarts belonged to the lodges until Bonnie Prince Charlie arrived.


We know that it was the Scots, in exile in Paris, who introduced Freemasonry in France.
The English and the Scots took this idea of ​​brotherhood to the New World, where the lodges are now well established.

Against this background, in 1534 King Henry VIII (1491-1547) of England was unable to obtain the annulment of his union with Catherine of Aragon from the Pope.

He promulgates the Act of supremacy by which he proclaims himself "sole leader and
supreme of the Church of England "

It causes a schism (separation) with Catholicism.


A new religion, Anglicanism, is settling in England and will retain the pumps and golds of Catholicism, to this day.

Anglicans found refuge in Switzerland and learned of Calvin's reforms.

 

Among them was a certain John Knox (1514-1572), educated at the University of Glasgow, ordained a Catholic priest in 1536 but a follower of a renewal within the Church.

 

In Switzerland, he became a pastor and would later be the founder of the Church of Scotland, endowing it with a Calvinist liturgy. He will translate a bible into English.

Elisabeth I (1533-1603) was Anglican and compared to her uncompromising Catholic half-sister Marie, she was tolerant.

 

She became supreme governor of the Church of England instead of the supreme leader because she was a woman.

 

The laws of heresy were overturned to avoid a repeat of the persecutions practiced by Mary.

Her reign was marked by the painful episode she will face over her cousin Marie Stuart, Queen of Scots.

But who was Marie Stuart (1542-1587)?

 

She will be the queen with two crowns. In Scotland from 1542 to 1567 and in France from 1559 to 1560.

 

 

Daughter of the King of Scotland, Jacques V Stuart, she becomes Queen a few days old, upon the death of her father

Heir to Elizabeth, Jacques VI who became James I of England
wishes to unite England and Scotland into one kingdom.


The Parliament rejected this project and the two states remained separate, although governed by the same king.

 

The British states experienced a period of peace throughout his reign; no war is declared.

He will take part in witch trials and himself lead torture and burning of women.

 

Gradually these trials and executions are trying to disappear.

 

But it was not until 1763 that the British Parliament made everything illegal
accusation of witchcraft against others.

- Under the reign of James I, the Puritans, members of a Protestant sect, considered that the reform was not yet complete. For them, it was necessary to go further in the return to the original sources of Christianity.

 

Considered to be "outlaws", "marginal", they are actively sought. They then decide to emigrate to a distant land where they would be free to practice a Puritan Christianity.

It was the adventure of the Mayflower which, on November 21, 1620, arrived in North America.

A founding act is set on this date, we will talk about it again.
Jacques I died in 1625.
The period that followed was tumultuous for the Stuarts, especially because of the Puritan Olivier Cromwell.

Here is Charles 1st Stuart (1600-1649) who became king in 1625.
Grandson of Marie Stuart, considered as queen martyr by the Catholics, this young king sees himself as sovereign of divine right. He ignores the parliament, which begins to suspect him of being Catholic because of his
marriage with Marie Henriette of France.
It interferes between the churches of Scotland and England. He is raising taxes.
Become unpopular, he is considered a tyrant.

In 1649, Charles I was arrested, tried and executed for high treason. Note that during this controversial reign, the New World, including Canada, saw the arrival of the first Scottish settlers. During the 1620s, Charles I sent a troop of Scots to found a colony in Nova Scotia.
The monarchy was then abolished and a "Republic" called the Commonwealth of England was established, with Oliver Cromwell at its head.

Olivier Cromwell (1599-1658) a minor nobility soldier converted to Puritanism.

He thus imposed a Puritan despotism and made austerity reign.
He practices a certain religious tolerance, except with regard to Catholics for whom he engaged in a real genocide in Ireland, essentially.
In 1660 the monarchy was restored and the eldest son of Charles I ascended the throne, under the name of Charles II (1630-1685).
Popular concerns about Catholic influence remained strong.
They became clearer when the second son of Charles I, Jacques II (1633-1701) in turn ascended to the throne in 1685.
Claiming the faith of his Catholic ancestors, he officially converted.

Jacques II was overthrown in 1688 by the Dutch Protestant Prince William III (1650-1702) of Orange, of the Hanover dynasty, husband of Marie II Stuart, eldest daughter of Jacques II.

Marie II Stuart and Guillaume III will reign together.
On William's death, Mary's sister, Anne I Stuart, becomes Queen. She is Anglican.
Childless, upon his death, the crown will be ceded to the Elector of Hanover, George I, who will suppress the last Jacobite revolt led by Bonnie Prince Charlie.
The Jacobite movement was born with the arrival in exile of James II in France.
The pretenders to the throne of the House of Stuart continued their fight in the person of Jacques (1688-1766) He is the son of King James II. He takes up his father's claims. He calls himself "James III of England and Ireland and VIII of Scotland" (1701-1766).
This pretender who took refuge in France in 1701, surrounded by Scots and English Catholics and Legitimists, never succeeded in regaining his throne because most countries had recognized William III and Mary II of England as the only legitimate rulers.

Charles Édouard (1720-1788) Louis John Casimir Sylvester Severino Maria Stuart (1720-1788), nicknamed in his time "the Young Pretender", the young pretender or "the Young Chevalier" remained in popular memory under the name of Bonnie Prince Charlie, bonnie meaning "beautiful" or "blessed" in Gaelic.
In less than an hour, England are victorious. About 1,250 Jacobites had died against 350 of the Hanoverian forces.


The Stuarts' hope ended in Culloden on April 16, 1746.
It is the failure of the fourth of the Jacobite landings in Scotland, after those of 1692, 1708, and 1715, and the end of hopes of restoring the Stuart line to the thrones of Scotland and England, with the flight of Prince Bonnie Charles reduced to imploring the help of the young Flora McDonald.
Note that it was under the Stuart dynasty that England established its colonies in North America, Canada and the West Indies.
The first English and Scottish settlers began to settle there. Many fled the opposition between Catholics and Protestants. Others just asked to live their beliefs freely. All wanted to live in a new tolerant society.

Little by little, the idea of ​​a new democracy developed, which would take shape in 1776 with the Declaration of Independence.

 

The consequences of this defeat were considerable for the Scots.
The Scots, who numbered approximately 6,000 men, suffered around 2,000 deaths. 336 Jacobites and 222 French were taken prisoner.
The hunt for the Jacobites made it possible to take more than 3,500 prisoners.
A thousand, sold as slaves, were sent to the colonies under contract of servitude.
Around 100 executions were ordered in public places in London.
The senior officers and the heads of Jacobite clans were beheaded, hanged, drowned or quartered.
In addition, unjust laws were enacted by the English whose sole purpose was "to destroy and annihilate Scottish culture." "
The authority of the clan leaders was suppressed.
Scottish Gaelic prohibited.
The Catholics were prosecuted.
The Presbyterian Church was imposed.
The ban on carrying arms was tightened.
Bagpipes were banned.
Wearing tartan prohibited.
Any disobedience was punishable by long months in prison and being sent to the colonies if the offense was repeated.

Let's add this finally:

The eradicated clan system had a disastrous consequence for the farmers who lived on the clan lands. Indeed, the lands were. confiscated and the men were driven out.

These vast expanses of desert were acquired by the English and introduced sheep farming. Thus was born the British wool industry. This is what we call the Highlands Clearances movement which led to misery, begging, famine ...

Scottish farmers, with no chieftain to protect them, went into exile and went to where they had family.

 

The new world awaited them.

These are the men fleeing poverty who arrived in North Carolina.

 

This law, abandoned in 1782, almost destroyed Scottish culture; it was the source of hatred and resentment towards the English.

And now what does Diana Gabaldon tell us about this?

 

Here are some examples found by Gratianne.

 

VOLUME 1

 

From the start of the first volume, all the ingredients are in place to lead us into the Scottish atmosphere of the present and the past.
Pagan and Christian traditions are present and sometimes overlap ...

Here are a few examples:

 

Claire and Frank meet Reverend Reginald Wakefield, Presbyterian pastor.

We are in 1945, in a Scotland appeased from its religious wars, it has been British for 200 years. And she proved it by her heroism during the two world wars.

And yet, quickly, we are transported into the mysteries of this country and with Claire we will cross the stones to discover other mysteries and pagan and Christian traditions that are sometimes still closely linked.

 

Here is a list of pagan rites which characterize the Highlands and set the scene.

- "Ritual sacrifice" with black rooster blood put on modern houses in Beltane. And for the old constructions, there was: An "offering to the spirit of the earth" with a human sacrifice under the foundations (this was still done in the 18th century since the young mason Stephen Bonnet, who was to be sacrificed, was was fled for this reason.)


- The Dance of the Fairies at Craig Na Dun, is described as local folklore which perpetuates the ancient Celtic rites.
- But it goes further with Mrs. Graham who is a modern druid and who directs the dancers by casting incantations. She predicts Claire's future by reading the leaves of her tea and the lines of her hand, and believes in travelers. Isn't she a witch?
- These rites are linked to the "Old days", important days for Highlanders and travelers, the ancient festivals:
- Hogmanay for the new year,
- Midsummer Day in the middle of summer,
- Beltane at the spring equinox,
- All Hallows on All Saints' Day.
- The Druids and the Picts respected the feasts of sun and fire.
- The Gathering at Leoch Castle: The oath of allegiance to Laird with the sword is a very ancient rite that dates back to ancient Roman times and was taken up by the knights in the Middle Ages and will continue in the clans. It is Allegiance to the sovereign, but also to God. A free man agrees to be alongside the overlord in the event of war.
- Saint Ninian, the source of liars, Dougal makes Claire drink there, because he suspects her of being a spy and lying.
- "Fairy Hill": a sick or dead baby is traded to live with the fairies eternally. Etc ...

The Catholic religion practiced in the Highlands of the XVIII ° and told in volume 1.

- The arrival at Leoch Castle, the Mackenzie clan is Catholic, pagan rites have evolved with religion but they are still very present.
The priest's hiding place makes us understand that Catholic priests are persecuted.
- Small Calvaries in memory of various Saints dot the Highlands, for Ex-Voto or offerings. Systematic sign of the cross in the evocation of a dead person. We see among others doing it, Dougal, Angus, Rupert, Ms.
- Fitz or Jamie, (it's described and you can see it very well in the series).
- "Black Kirk" or the black church, Jamie makes the sign of the cross there, and talks about the devil who is present in this cursed place.
- Father Bain: exorcise Tammas, Lindsay the devil has already taken him. Claire manages to give her an antidote to the poison and Mrs. Fitz calls her a "miracle worker."
Father Bain and District Attorney Duncan deliver justice together in Cranesmuir.
- The witch trial is held under the authority of the church. Witches represent the devil, they must be eliminated by fire.
- Catholic religious wedding of Claire and Jamie, even if the marriage is arranged, Jamie wants a blessing by a priest. He wants an alliance, a sign of loyalty.
At Wentworth Prison, Jamie's Torture: Some may see it as an analogy between the character of Jamie and Jesus, the comparison is disturbing: flogging, betrayal (Duke of Sandringham) hand nailed, Satan personalized by BJR who takes possession of his body, etc ...

But we certainly see there the symbol of the martyr of the Scottish people persecuted by a particularly sadistic occupier.

 

We then meet at the Abbey of Sainte Anne de Beaupré

- They are Benedictines, led by Father Alexandre Fraser, uncle of Jamie. Confession of Claire and prayers with Brother Anselme.
- Claire's absolution, extreme anointing for Jamie.
- Baptism to be reborn to life in the bowels of the earth.
- Claire explains that she was baptized according to the Catholic rite, but raised by her uncle Lambert who was everything and nothing, he knew all the religions and did not believe in any. Conclusion of the monk, Claire is and remains Catholic.

 

There are certainly others ...

 

 

 

VOLUME 2

 

Search for Jamie by Roger

 

- Consult the parish registers of the Church of Broch Mordha, to find the soldiers who died in Culloden. The British burned the Jacobite soldiers after executing them without giving them Extreme Unction or prayer with a priest.
- Church of Saint Kilda, site built on a Roman temple, has Christian and Pagan inscriptions. (last mass in 1800)

Paris XVIII ° - Catholic France -

- The sound of bells punctuates the days with the call to various masses and prayers. - The servants go to mass.
- Jacobite mail is transmitted from abbeys to monasteries and from monasteries to convents by the Papal mail trunk.
- The ecclesiastical hierarchy helps and supports the Jacobites, this also continued after Culloden, these letters reached them safely for those who remained in the country.
- The Pope supports the Jacobite cause, he pays the bills of the Stuarts in exile for 50 years. Mother Hildegarde de Gascogne is Catholic
- The Kabbalah called "mysterious circle" is present in Paris, Le Comte de St-Germain and Maitre Raymond are known followers.
- "Disciples of evil": sect for young people of good family, with a penchant for gratuitous violence .... the Count of St. Germain is still cited.
- Claire in Fontainebleau meets and helps Reverend Walter Laurent of Geneva, it is a pastor Huguenot who is hiding. There are a couple of servants who are his secret followers.

Scotland and the war against the English.

- The English, call the Scots, Jacobites "Shameless Libertines", as for example what young Lord John Gray said to Jamie.
- Jacobite officers move into the rectory in Tranent.
- A priest accompanies the soldiers on the battlefield to give the last rites to the wounded and the dying. The parish priest is a Frenchman from Keppoch. He is dressed as a soldier, with vials of Holy Chrism and Holy Water on his belt, because if the English capture him in a cassock, they tear him to pieces.
- The marriage of Mary Hawkins and Jack Randall is pronounced by Alex Randall who is pastor.

 

 


VOLUME 3

 

Period after Culloden in Scotland

 

- After the Battle of Culloden: The living and wounded Jacobites are shot and burned without receiving the Holy Sacraments.
- In Lallybroch in Scotland: The priest's refuge or the priest's cache was built under the house and behind the tuber reserve in case of need to hide the hunted priests or the wanted Jacobites.
- Ardsmuir Prison: Among the Jacobites locked up there are Catholics from the Highlands and Protestants from the south of Scotland, this leads to fights.
- The governor of the prison, Harry Quarry, from the English nobility introduced Jamie to Freemasonry which in turn did it for all the men in his cell.
- In Helwater: "Papist" baptism of little Willie by Jamie, who hides a candle and a statue of the virgin in a secret box because it is forbidden. Catholics are called dirty papists.
- In Edinburgh: Geordie, Jamie's employee at the printing press, agrees to work for a papist but does not tolerate his boss's having to let loose.
- Catholic religious education remains important for children in Scotland: Jamie, after explanations of sins, sends young Ian to confess.

 

 

Stay in Paris

 

- In Paris, Jamie's cousin Jared notices that he is a Freemason and writes him letters of introduction to the various Masonic lodges in Jamaica, Barbados, and Trinidad where the largest lodge is located. Claire discovers that Jamie is a Freemason.
- The Meyer numismatist Jamie brings to Jared's is Jewish, he calls himself by his first name: the Jews of Frankfurt are looked down upon and are not allowed to use a family name.

AS A CONCLUSION

 

 

Here we are at the end of our journey in Europe, victim of its rivalries and its wars of religion.
We have not made any value judgments about beliefs in being superior.
Yes, we loved these epic and romantic characters.
Their strength of character won us over.
Their attachment to their family, their clan, their faith, their customs, their traditions and their homeland are a hymn to freedom.
Beyond the extraordinary love story of this novel, reading Diana Gabaldon's Outlander books awakened memories of a particularly tragic period in European history.
It is essentially the drama of men's intolerance towards one another that this saga awakens in our consciousness.


We saw there a people subject to the sole authority of an occupier.
We have met men banished from their lands for having defended a little corner of freedom.
So we searched the collective memory of mankind for what causes men to tear themselves apart.
We saw there greedy and unscrupulous beings, for whom all pretexts are good in order to seize the good of others, to use the name of God to achieve their ends.
We have only seen human beings torn apart, martyred and victims of absolute power.
All of these victims of intolerance make us think about the fate of men who are forced to leave everything to live a normal life.
The major quality of this work is that it allows us to discover the revival of a man and his family to pursue his life, fight, love ... and build.
This saga is that of migrants ... of all migrants.
Let us think of Marie Curie, Picasso, Aznavour, Einstein, Freud ... the Dalai Lama and all the anonymous people of the earth.
Beyond Jamie and Claire's sexual exploits, there is a perpetual human drama ... the search for peace.


It is this historical drama that we experienced while reading this book.
Diana's message is a gift that forces us to go beyond the simple romantic anecdote. We have a duty to remember the root causes responsible for this tragedy which took shape during the Renaissance and reached its climax as the Enlightenment tried to illuminate Europe.
The characters, starting from nothing, will build a new state while maintaining their deep convictions.
We had John Wayne's Westerns ... and here is another vision of Eternal America.
Because Jamie, over the pages, becomes an American hero who has faith ....
And beyond the historical facts and the saga, at the end of this long road of suffering, we see hope emerging.
The one that every man, having reached beyond physical suffering, can hope for: a promised land.
This land of all possibilities where a mosaic of thoughts and convictions can live in harmony. It is this American dream that the author invites us to live
As these words are written, democracy has been trampled on this January 6, 2021. But we remain hopeful for a better world for Humanity.
And we will end with this passage from Barak Obama in his book, The Promised Land:

"Because I am convinced that the pandemic we are currently experiencing is both a manifestation and an interruption of the inexorable march towards an interconnected world, a world where peoples and cultures cannot help but collide.
In this world [....], we will learn to live together, to cooperate and to recognize the dignity of others, otherwise we will perish. "


And now we're going to finish the job and head across the Atlantic where the Fraser clan has taken refuge.


Text by Françoise.

Illustrations by Gratianne.
Proofreading, observations and indications of Claudine.
Non-exhaustive bibliography ... if you want to go further, outside of websites ...

Arondel M., Bouillon J., Rudel J., XVIth XVIIth XVIIIth centuries, Louis Girard History Collection, Paris, Bordas, 1964.
Cottret Bernard, Cromwell, Paris, Fayard, 1992.

Cottret Bernard, History of the United Kingdom, An Anthology, from the 16th to the 20th Century, Paris, Breal, 2001.

Cottret Bernard, Henry VIII, power through force, Payot, 2005.

Cottret Bernard, History of England, Paris, Tallandier, 2011 Cottret Bernard, The English Revolution (1603-1660), Paris, Perrin, 2015

Delumeau Jean, Wanegffelen Thierry, Cottret Bernard, Birth and affirmation of the Reform, PUF, 2012.

De Thier Henry, Catholic Church and Masonic Temple. Another Look, Paris, Dervy, 1997.

Duchein Michel, Marie Stuart. The woman and the myth, Paris, Fayard, 1987.

Duchein Michel, Elisabeth Ière of England: power and seduction, Paris, Fayard, 1992.

Duchein Michel, History of Scotland, Paris, Fayard, 1998.

Gauthier Guy, Élisabeth Ière, The dawn of British power, Saint-Malo, Éditions Pascal Galodé, 2014.

Josserand, Vallée, Person, Ménard, Unique volume of history, Paris, Fernand Nathan, 1

Texte :  Françoise Rochet 

Illustration : Gratianne Garcia 

Relecture et conseils avisés : Claudine Leroy