his heroes and their religions

And particularly dynamic, the Dutch embarked on the oceanic adventure at the end of the 16th century. These traders and skilful sailors will conquer the world: Curaçao, the Antilles; the Brazilian northeast, West Africa, southern Africa, Japan via Batavia in the Indonesian archipelago.


This is a commercial and not a territorial conquest.

The following year, three ships arrived with provisions, cattle and other settlers.

The settlers built a fort, a warehouse and around thirty wooden dwellings. 


New Amsterdam was born. 

But the rivalry between England and the Netherlands is not all about a trade war.

It has a political and religious aspect.

England is in the hands of the Puritans, hostile to the Dutch Calvinists.


Many royalists, supporters of the Stuarts, found refuge in the United Provinces.

 In the middle of the 17th century, the two countries entered into war.

 The English will conquer New Netherland.


In January 1665, Charles II offered his brother Jacques, the Duke of York, the territory between the Delaware and Connecticut rivers even before he had begun the conquest.

 Charles II sends four small vessels to New Amsterdam.

“England […] jealously saw a small state [Holland] barely formed in its neighborhood spreading throughout the universe the branches of its prosperity. " 

Abbot Raynal (1780) 

It is a little by chance that the Dutch will set foot on American territory.

In 1609, Henry Hudson , an English navigator, was recruited by the  East India Company of the United Provinces (Vereenigde Oostinsdische Compagnie or VOC ) in order to find new sea routes to Asia.

 On board a modest ship the Halve Maen (Demi-Lune) , Hudson sets sail at the head of an Anglo-Dutch crew

It enters a bay (in New York) and goes up a river (Hudson) to the height of present-day Albany. 

But this new territory does not arouse enthusiasm among Dutch shipowners for whom only trade with Asia, renowned for its riches since the voyages of Marco Polo, counts. However, the merchants of Amsterdam decided to establish a fur trade with the natives there. They grouped together in a company, the Compagnie de Nouvelle-Néerlande, and obtained from the Stadhouder a monopoly between the 40th and 45th parallel for a period of four years.


At the end of these four years, the results of this small company are prestigious:

 • She founded Fort Nassau (now Albany).

 • It sustainably organizes the trade in furskins, mainly beaver skins.

 • It establishes regular commercial links with the metropolis.

 • She explores and maps the Atlantic coastline from Delaware Bay to Long Island. Thus was born the Company of the West Indies (West-Indische Compagnie or WIC).

The Company chose two main colonization sites:

 • the region between the Delaware and Connecticut, Nieuw Nederlandt or New Netherland rivers (Nova Belgica in Latin)

 • the Brazilian North-East, Nieuw Holland or New Holland.

In 1624, the Company sent to New York Bay a first 

ship, the Nieuw Nederlandt, with on board provisions and some thirty Walloon families, French-speaking Calvinists from the Spanish Netherlands - now Belgium - who had taken refuge in the United Provinces.

These first migrants, including farmers, will ensure "the supply" of the future colony. 

They are the vanguard

The Company "bought", through its governor Pieter Minuit (1580-1638), a Walloon native of Tournai, the island of Manhattan ("hilly island" in Algonquian), from the Amerindians manna-hata in 1626 for some blankets, tools and pieces of pottery.

The colony's population is growing at a rate too slow to cope with the magnitude of the task.


The Company introduced in 1638 a system of concession which guarantees 80 hectares to any settler who arrives with at least four other people.


The wealthy settlers recruit migrants of different nationalities and religions: Dutch, English, Germans, Scandinavians, Jews, Huguenots, Walloons, etc.

In addition, the conquest of New York has many advantages:


• Extend North American possessions.

• Make the connection between New England and the southern colonies.

 • Provide access to new sources of fur supply.

 • Control the Hudson Valley by offering them a route to the interior of the continent.


The summer of 1664 is an essential date for English North America. 

England now controls the entire coast from Maine to Virginia. 


New York is unique in the history of these English American colonies because it was founded by another country and the majority of its inhabitants are not English, the latter making up only a fifth of the population. 


Jacques Stuart had every interest in being very tolerant of the Dutch settlers who were first-rate traders. It grants them many freedoms in order to keep them in this territory.

The Dutch therefore continued to exercise considerable influence in social, economic and cultural life.


It was a typical town with its houses with pointed roofs and cheerful markets.

The atmosphere was relaxed. It was a city of rejoicings, celebrations, feasts.

Which contrasted with Boston, the Puritan.

The Dutch custom of visiting neighbors, toasting glasses, drinking the cup of coffee, celebrating New Year's Day and Christmas are still valid today!

From now on, this region will be a producer of meat, cereals and other foodstuffs for all the American colonies. 


It will export the skins.

This open and tolerant region was the gateway to the New World.

We will retain the Walloons who were the first with the Dutch.


The Scottish Covenanters (Scottish Gaelic: Cùmhnantaich): see below, about Outlander.

But also the Irish, rough peasants who seized the land.

The Lutheran Germans fled war and poverty in large numbers.

They were workers: seasoned farmers, artisans, weavers, shoemakers, cabinet makers ...

The Jews had been transferred by the Dutch. They came from the Dutch Brazilian colonies.

They were fleeing the Spaniards and the Portuguese because they feared new pogroms

What does Diana Gabaldon tell us in Outlander about New York? 


We hear about New York in the novels from the 4th volume.


T4 Ch53 - To go get Roger that Ian and his Iroquois friends sold to the Mohawks who live in the colony of New York, Claire and Jamie had a long trip of 6 weeks, Claire counted the days by tying knots on a string. (from early January to mid-February). In this colony, the Mohawks fought alongside the English against the French.

Then the Covenanters who arrived in NY are mentioned


Here are some details about these Scottish Covenanters (Scottish Gaelic: Cùmhnantaich) The name derived from Covenant, a biblical term for a link or agreement with God.

• They were members of a 17th century Scottish religious and political movement, which supported the Presbyterian Church of Scotland and the primacy of its leaders in religious affairs and opposed the King's control over the management of that church .

 • They opposed the bishops who were royalists

 • The origins of the movement were found in the changes imposed by Charles I of England on the structure and doctrine of the church.

 • In 1638, thousands of Scots signed the National Pact, pledging to resist the changes imposed by Charles on the Kirk (church) of 1639 and 1640 and the Covenanters took control of Scotland.

 • After the restoration of kingship in 1660, the Covenanters lost control of the Scottish Kirk and became a persecuted minority.

• In 1688 in Scotland, the Church of Scotland was reestablished as a fully Presbyterian structure and most of the Covenanters were readmitted. This marked the end of their existence as a major movement, although dissident minorities persist in Scotland, Ireland and North America.

 • Throughout the 17th century Covenanter congregations were established in Ireland, mainly in Ulster; for various reasons, many of them subsequently migrated to North America.

• In 1717 William Tivez moved with his family to Philadelphia, where he later founded Log College, the first Presbyterian seminary in North America.

 • In North America, many former Covenanters joined the Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America, which was founded in 1743.

• Republicans, they were among the loudest agitators for independence and volunteered in large numbers as soldiers in the revolutionary army.



T5 Ch4 : Duncan Innés tells Roger that his family is very religious, members of the Covenant for generations.


T5 Ch15 : Explanations on what the Convenanters are by Duncan Innés with the evocation of his very puritan grandfather who believed in Predestination.


On the subject of the War of Independence, we find New York.



T5 Ch88 - New York is still in the hands of the English and becomes their HQ to prepare the war of independence. Lord John Gray and Lord Harold Melton —Duc de Pardloe leave for New York to follow the British army. We learn it when Lord John offers Claire and Jamie to come and occupy his house on Chestnut Street in Philadelphia which is therefore unoccupied.


When the Revolution begins, New York is in the hands of the English forces. It is towards this city that the loyalist population goes to flee the advance of the Continental troops.

 This is very well described and detailed in T8-1 Ch50: William is tasked with monitoring this convoy of civilians fleeing Philadelphia at the hands of the Mainlanders (the Whigs) with the protection of the British Army. The English left Philadelphia following the Battle of Monmouth, June 28, 1778.



And to finish… small postcards, some books, films and music… 

Text :  Françoise Rochet 

Illustration : Gratianne Garcia 

Relecture et conseils avisés : Claudine Leroy 

Middle Colonies: New York



But the chronic lack of manpower will bring the Company of the West Indies in the slave trade from the 1630s. The first slaves arrive in 1626 and in 1664, they are 700 in the colony.


In New Amsterdam, they make up more than a quarter of the city's population and increase the prosperity of the region.

The whole of the territory conquered by the Dutch was originally agricultural and pastoral, but it quickly became a land of commerce because the Dutch were pragmatic, well-organized men.


They therefore end up controlling all colonial trade, which will provoke the anger of the English.

England reacted and enacted the “Navigation Acts” between 1651 and 1696. 

The English take control of the seas with their military ships and impose their rules in order to dominate the colonial markets of foreign competition, both from Asia, Africa or America in order to exclude the Dutch, their main rivals. 

They succeed in controlling the products of import and export by a true boycott of the goods which do not answer their laws.

Governor Petrus Stuyvesant (1647-1672) surrenders without a fight. The city and the fort were renamed New York and Fort James.

 The Treaty of Breda, signed in 1667 by the two nations, confirms this conquest and in return gives Suriname to the Dutch.

 For the English, this "military victory" increases their prestige and gives them the satisfaction of having weakened their main commercial rival.

If the city prospered from trade, large estates also prospered as well as small farmers.

Forests and pastures provided fodder for livestock.

Tobacco and flax grew easily.

Fruit was plentiful, including apples.

Good understanding with the Indians allowed the fur trade which developed in Albany.

Martin Scorsese's unforgettable musical film


"New York New York" was released in 1977 .

Start spreadin' the news

I'm leaving today

I want to be a part of it

New York, New York

These vagabond shoes

Are longing to stray

Right through the very heart

of it New York, New York

 I want to wake up in a city

 That doesn't sleep

 And find I'm king of the hill

Top of the heap

These little town blues

 Are melting away

 I'll make a brand new start

of it In old New York

If I can make it there

I'll make it anywhere

It's up to you

New York, New York

 New York, New York

I want to wake up in a city

That never sleeps

 And find I'm a number one

 Top of the list

 King of the hill

A number one

These little town blues

 Are melting away

 I'm gonna make a brand new start

of it In old New York

And if I can make it there

 I'm gonna make it anywhere

 It's up to you

 New York, New York

New York

West Side Story  

by Leonard Bernstein, Arthur Laurents (libretto), inspired by the tragedy Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare and created

 on September 26, 1957 at the Winter Garden Theater on Broadway. The choreography and direction were by Jerome Robbins, the sets by Oliver Smith and the costumes by Irene Sharaff.

The Godfather 

by Mario Puzo (Author), Jean Perrier (Translator)


Here is a great classic of literature to understand how the Mafia was born and developed in the United States.


We discover the great figure of the unforgettable Corleone, head of the Italian mafia family. The epic of the Godfather has elevated the news item to the rank of myth.


And also inspired one of the greatest films in the history of cinema



BOURGET, Jean-Loup, MARTIN, Jean-Pierre and ROYOT Daniel, History of American Culture, Paris, University Press of France, 1993.

BUTEL, Paul, History of the Atlantic from Antiquity to the present day, Paris, Perrin, 1997.

DUTEIL, Jean-Pierre and VILLIERS, Patrick, L'Europe, la mer et les colonies, 17th-18th century, Paris, Hachette, 1997. 

FOUCHÉ, Nicole, PORTES, Jacques, ROSSIGNOL, Marie-Jeanne and VIDAL, Cécile, Europe / North America. Five centuries of interaction, Paris, Armand Colin, 2008.

 LACROIX, Jean-Michel, History of the United States, Paris, University Press of France, 2010.

 EMMER, Pieter C., POTON DE XAINTRAILLES, Didier and SOUTY, François (dir.), The Netherlands and the Atlantic, 1500-1800, Rennes, Presses universitaire de Rennes, 2009.

 Pap Ndiaye, A very special institution. Slavery in the United States, 1619-1877, Paris, Armand Colin, 1998).

 FAUCQUEZ, Anne-Claire, “From New Netherland to New York: territorial conquest and cultural resistance”, Revue de la Société d'études anglo-Américains des XVIIe et XVIIIe centuries, no 66, 2009, p. 85-115.

In the middle of the 17th century, England faced a new rival, other than Spain or France.

It is about the United Provinces of the Netherlands , a power, not political, but commercial and maritime which is also interested in North America. Since 1609, the Dutch have had a colony there, New Netherland, located between Connecticut and Maryland.


For the English, this presence is an obstacle to its plans for territorial expansion by preventing them from joining New England to its southern colonies.

Et commence à répandre la nouvelle

 Aujourd'hui je m'en vais

Je veux en faire partie

New York, New York

 Ces chaussures vagabondes

 Se languissent d’errer

 En plein cœur de cette ville

New York, New York

 Je veux me réveiller dans une ville

Qui ne dort jamais

New York, New York

 Et découvrir que je suis le roi

de la colline Au sommet

Ces petites villes bleues

S'évanouissent au loin

 Je vais repartir de zéro

 A New York

 Si je peux le faire ici

Alors je le ferai partout

C'est toi qui choisis

 New York, New York

 New York, New York

 Je veux me réveiller dans une ville

Qui ne dort jamais

 Et découvrir que je suis le numéro 1

En haut de la liste

Roi de la colline

Le numéro 1

Ces petites villes bleues

S'évanouissent au loin

 Je vais repartir de zéro

 A New York

Et si je peux le faire ici

Je vais le faire partout

 C'est toi qui choisis

 New York, New York

 New York

By liza minnelli

By Frank Sinatra

This autobiographical story begins on September 11, 2001, in New York. The author, Henrik Rehr, lives 200 meters from the World Trade Center. That day, like every day, his wife Evelyn leaves for work taking their eldest son Dylan to school. He remains to work at home taking care of their second two-year-old child. At 8:48 am, a first plane hits one of the Twins Towers ...


The rest is history ...

Oil on canvas by Griffing - "Trader" 2009 

Big Apple (Bronze) de S.Wess

Big Apple bronze sculpture by S. Weiss